Until recently, foreign companies had been restricted from autonomously and freely operating in the Chinese market due to the strict requirement by China’s government for full Chinese ownership and leadership in the country’s key economic sectors: telecommunications, railways, finance, aerospace among others. For foreign companies that operate in one of these sectors, partnering with Chinese state-owned enterprises had always been compulsory, as they dominate these key sectors. A partnership between private Chinese and foreign companies also exits and is often motivated by learning, combining available funds and expertise to develop individual or joint projects, joint-venturing and so on.
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